Self- and Parent-Rated Quality of Life in School Aged Children with ADHD: The Impact of Common Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders and Motor Proficiency
Nilay Sahan, Halime Tuna Cak Esen, Ayhan Parmaksız, Songül Atasavun Uysal
Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical key factors, that is, ADHD symptom severity, comorbidity and motor skill level, and the quality of life perceived by the child and parent.
Methods: A total of 81 boys, 6-10 years were evaluated. Five groups of children were compared: ADHD only (n=18); ADHD and specific learning disorder (n=17); ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (n=16); ADHD and anxiety disorder (n=15); typical developing (n=15). The Conners’ Parent Scale- Revised Short Form and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Parent and Child Forms were filled out. Motor skills were evaluated using the 2nd version of the Bruininsky-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test. Progressive regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which the quality of life of children was predicted by the comorbid status, ADHD symptoms and severity, and motor skill scores.
Results: ADHD diagnosis affects the quality of life according to both child and parent reports whether comorbid psychiatric disorder accompanies it or not. Although the comorbidity of opposition defiant disorder affects the quality of life more according to child reports, it shows that having ADHD diagnosis alone is enough to affect the quality of life of children according to parent reports. Additionally, the presence of comorbidity accompanying ADHD diagnosis, increases in ADHD symptom severity and motor skill deficiencies are important predictors of quality of life according to both child and parent reports.
Conclusion: Considering different aspects of ADHD; a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms persisting into adulthood, on the perceptions of both children and families about quality of life will contribute to improving the children’s well-being.
Keywords: Quality of life, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, comorbidity, motor skills, children.